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  • Particles in gases and liquids are moving; particles in solids are usually not. ODCA responses 5a, 6a, 6c, 16b 6b 7c, 17b, 17c, 18b 2b 2c 1b, 2a 8a, 13a, 14a 11c 7b, 11b, 12c 8b, 12d, 18a 13c, 14b 14c 12b 3b, 7b, 8d 9a, 10b 10a 10d 4c, 15a, 16a 4d 4a 16dIL). Values from the ODCA had been then compared with those reported for the DODT (Odom, 1995; Odom and Barrow, 1995).remaining students received one of 4 other conceptual assessments on diverse topics examined for programmatic assessment. None in the courses straight addressed subjects of osmosis and diffusion just before the ODCA was administered, as these processes have been taught explicitly in earlier courses.ODCA AdministrationOnce ODCA design and style was finalized, student overall performance was assessed in four successive semesters through two academic years, 2007008 and 2008009 (Table four; IRB Approval 278). This study compares the performance of three groups of university students: upper-division RU-SKI 43 chemical information biology majors, lowerdivision biology majors, and lower-division allied wellness majors. The upper-division biology majors were students enrolled in 4 upper-division biology courses ("core" courses on the curriculum) taken by most biology majors. The lowerdivision allied wellness majors have been non iology majors enrolled within a lower-division microbiology course. These two groups were surveyed for 4 semesters. The lower-division biology majors consisted of students enrolled inside a lowerdivision introductory biology course essential for all biology majors; they have been surveyed through the 2008009 year. A random subset of students in every course was invited each and every semester to complete the ODCA, making use of the course management technique, Blackboard Academic Suite. Students have been asked to finish the ODCA during a 10-d window following course registration ended and enrollments were finalized. Students were encouraged to complete the ODCA as their contribution to the biology department's annual programmatic assessment work; three participation points may be earned by finishing a "survey." We made use of the term "survey" to distinguish the ODCA and other conceptual assessments from the graded tests taken by students. Roughly 20 of the students enrolled in each and every of your courses have been randomly invited to complete the ODCA each semester (Table 4). TheVol. ten, WinterRESULTS Variation among CoursesOf the 670 students invited to complete the ODCA over the 4 semesters, 408 (61 ) responded and gave consent to use their data (Table 4). Inside every level (upper-division biology big, lower-division biology big, and nonmajor), there was considerable within-class variation in student overall performance. Consequently, no important differences were found in student efficiency across semesters within the upperdivision courses, lower-division courses, or nonmajor courses (two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), P > 0.05). Thus, for each and every level (upper division, reduce division, nonmajor), benefits from all semesters had been combined for these analyses.Difficulty and Discrimination IndicesDifficulty indices (p) with the things ranged from 0.27 to 0.98 (Table five), using a mean of 0.65, offering a wide array of item difficulty, equivalent to values reported for the DODT (Odom and Barrow, 1995). The discrimination indices (d) ranged from 0.07 to 0.67, using a mean of 0.44. The discrimination index refers to how well an item differentiates amongst higher and low scorers; it really is a standard measure of.